Commands & Colors: Ancients: Expansion #3: The Roman Civil Wars

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Commands & Colors: Ancients: Expansion #3: The Roman Civil Wars

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Munda (45 BC)
Following Julius Caesar’s victory at Thapsus, the remnants of the Pompeian army under Titus Labienus fled to Spain. Here, the garrison legions had revolted in favor of Gnaeus Pompey, the eldest son of Pompey the Great. Pompey gathered a large but…

Thapsus (46 BC)
Following his set-back at Ruspina, Julius Caesar spent some time regrouping before making a surprise night march of 16 miles and camping near the Pompeian-held coastal town of Thapsus. Caesar immediately placed Thapsus under siege. Though numerically…

Ruspina (46 BC)
Following his victory over Pharnaces at Zela, Julius Caesar returned to Rome where a crisis was brewing – the surviving veterans had grown very war-weary and were refusing orders to deploy overseas yet again. Caesar’s personal appeal sparked a…

Zela (47 BC)
Following his decisive victory at Pharsalus, Julius Caesar pursued Gnaeus Pompey to Egypt. Pompey was assassinated, effectively ending the civil war in the Eastern Mediterranean, but Caesar became involved in factional fighting in Alexandria in…

Pharsalus (48 BC)
After Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar pulled back to regroup his army. Gnaeus Pompey failed to follow up his victory and pursued slowly. After a winter of maneuvering through Thessaly, Pompey encamped at the foot of the mountains near Pharsalus and was…

Dyrrhachium (48 BC)
Julius Caesar crossed the Adriatic with seven depleted legions in order to confront Gnaeus Pompey’s main army and bring the civil war to an end. Antony, with the remaining five legions, was delayed (see Brindisi Raid). Caesar followed Pompey to…

Brindisi Raid (48 BC)
While Julius Caesar was campaigning in Spain, Gnaeus Pompey was building a new army in Greece. After returning to Italy, Caesar made a risky January crossing of the Adriatic with a portion of his army, resolving to defeat his rival and end the civil…

Bagradas River (49 BC)
King Juba of Numidia continued to support the Pompeians, even after Varus’ defeat at Utica. Curio led his Caesarian army after Varus, catching up with him at the Bagradas River. Curio attacked and routed the demoralized Pompeian army, and Varus was…

Utica P2 The Valley (49 BC)
Caesar had sent his general, Gaius Curio, to attack Pompey’s lieutenant, Attius Varus, in Africa. Varus was in camp below the walls of Utica. When a relief army sent by King Juba of Numidia arrived to reinforce Varus, Curio had launched a delaying…

Utica P1 Delaying Action (49 BC)
The First Triumverate of Crassus, Pompey and Julius Caesar collapsed soon after Crassus was defeated and killed by the Parthians at Carrhae in 53 BC. With Crassus gone, the rivalry between Pompey and Caesar steadily grew until civil war erupted in 49…

Ilerda (49 BC)
After driving Gnaeus Pompey from Italy, Julius Caesar moved against Pompey’s forces in Spain. Caesar had sent Gaius Fabius ahead to secure the passes over the Pyrenees and at the Sicoris River. Fabius succeeded, and his opponent, Pompey’s lieutenant…

Gergovia (52 BC)
Julius Caesar had conquered Gaul in just six years of campaigning (58-53 BC). However, in 52 BC most of the tribes of Gaul rose in a general revolt. Vercingetorix, a chieftain of the Averni, became overall commander of the rebel forces. Vercingetorix…

Plain of Alsace (58 BC)
Ariovistus was the chief of the Germanic Suebi tribe. He led his tribesmen across the Rhine into Gaul at the invitation of some warring Gallic tribes. Once in Gaul, Ariovistus called on his German allies, the Harudes, Marcomanni, Triboci, Vangiones,…

Bibracte (58 BC)
Gaius Julius Caesar, an ambitious Roman noble, had entered into a political alliance with Gnaeus Pompey and Marcus Licinius Crassus, which became known as the “First Triumvirate.” Caesar used these connections to obtain an appointment as proconsul…

Sucro (75 BC)
Gnaeus Pompey had regained his confidence after his victory at Valentia, and now moved quickly to engage Quintus Sertorius before Quintus Caecilius Metellus could arrive with his reinforcing army and share in the honor of victory. Sertorius was…

Valentia (75 BC)
In the campaigns fought in Spain following the battle of Lauron, Quintus Sertorius proved to be a superior general to Gnaeus Pompey. However, Pompey recognized that even if he couldn’t defeat Sertorius, he could defeat his lieutenants. Pompey had…

Lauron (76 BC)
Quintus Sertorius defeated a series of Roman generals and nearly all of Spain joined his rebellion. He solidified his support through a just administration of the provinces and gained the loyalty of most of the Spanish tribes. Sertorius came to be…

Baetis River (80 BC)
Quintus Sertorius was a Roman noble who gained a reputation as a skillful military commander in the wars with the Cimbri and Teutones, and then in the Social War. Sertorius supported Marius’ “populares” and opposed Sullas’ “optimates” during the…

Colline Gate (82 BC)
Lucius Cornelius Sulla became the leader of the “optimates” faction in the civil war with the “populares” led by Gaius Marius. Sulla seized Rome in 88 BC and reorganized the government to his liking. However, when Sulla marched east to campaign…
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